AP Human Geography Barrons Chapter 3 Flashcards

demographic accounting equation

When dealing with ethnic groups, however, “net migration” might have to be subdivided into physical migration and ethnic reidentification . Individuals who change their ethnic self-labels or whose ethnic classification in government statistics changes over time may be thought of as migrating or moving from one population subcategory to another. There are a variety of demographic methods for modelling population processes. A sequence of demographic changes in which a country mobes from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time. Those are already on record, so getting that information is a lot easier that conducting a census. Well, hold your horses, ‘cause there’s still one more term to figure out.

How do you explain demographics?

What are Demographics? Demographics describe who we are as individuals, for example: ethnicity, age/generation, gender, income, marital status, education, and homeownership. These and other characteristics categorize us without describing our personality.

Under Soviet power the development of demography has been characterized by profound studies of demographic processes, the development of methods of analysis of population reproduction, and the critique of reactionary theories of population. Korchak-Chepurkovskii occupy prominent places in demographic research. Although all processes of population change are composed of events in the lives of individuals, demography studies them as mass processes, embracing the total number of births, deaths, or shifts of status. See also BIRTH RATE, STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATIO, FERTILITY, LIFE CHANCES, LIFE EXPECTANCY, EUGENICS. Is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction of biological and cultural evolution.

Demographic Characteristics

Most commentators agree that the systematic collection and study of population statistics originated with the publication of Natural and Political Observations on the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt in 1662. From 1629 onwards, the weekly ‘Bills of Mortality’ gave some indication of the causes of death within a population.

Demography is today widely taught in many universities across the world, attracting students with initial training in social sciences, statistics or health studies. Demographic research is conducted in universities, in research institutes, as well as in statistical departments and in several international agencies. Philosophers and politicians have often been interested in the nature and size of populations. Plato, for example, recommended a static population for his ideal city. Politicians have been particularly concerned with over-and underpopulation. Laws were passed in Ancient Rome, for example, which sought to prevent population decline.

What is the Growth Accounting Equation?

The English scholar John Graunt ( ) is considered the father of the science of demography. On the basis of death records in London over a number of years, he attempted to construct, for the first time, a “lifespan line”—the basis of mortality tables—and to formulate certain regularities in the pattern of population movement. The problems of population and its interrelation with the economy were examined by W. In the 18th century these analyses were developed with the use of mathematical methods by W. A vital advance in the very statement of the problem of studying the laws of the natural movement of population, independent of theological interpretation, was made by J.

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In the 1930s, thousands of “okies” fled the dust bowl of the southern great plains and moved to the fertile agricultural regions of california to start a new life. People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved. Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities. A long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another. Malcolm Tatum After many years in the teleconferencing industry, Michael decided to embrace his passion for trivia, research, and writing by becoming a full-time freelance writer. Since then, he has contributed articles to a variety of print and online publications, including , and his work has also appeared in poetry collections, devotional anthologies, and several newspapers. Malcolm’s other interests include collecting vinyl records, minor league baseball, and cycling.

  • In ancient Greece, this can be found in the writings of Herodotus, Thucydides, Hippocrates, Epicurus, Protagoras, Polus, Plato and Aristotle.
  • A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980.
  • Those are already on record, so getting that information is a lot easier that conducting a census.
  • The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends of family members to an existing community.
  • More generally, while the basic demographic equation holds true by definition, in practice the recording and counting of events and the enumeration of the total population size are subject to error.
  • In economics, we study changes in GDP over very different time horizons.

The total fertility rate, the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life, if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates. Direct data comes from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage, divorce, and migration .

In other words, the size of the population at time t + x is equal to the population at time t plus the births, minus the deaths, plus the immigrants, minus the emigrants, during the interval of time x. This simple formula can be used to derive a variety of rates and statistics describing population change. what is the accounting equation The equation’s main application is to describe short-term change in a population in terms of its various components. Demographic research is therefore of great practical importance in the planning of the national economy. V. Plekhanov devoted much attention to questions of population theory.

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Demographic Analysis

Demography represents a fundamental approach to the understanding of human society. Its primary tasks are to ascertain the number of people in a given area, to determine what change that number represents from a previous census, to explain the change, and to estimate the future trends of population changes. The demographer also traces the origins of population changes and studies their impact. Demographers compile and analyze data that are useful for understanding various social systems and for establishing public policy in such areas as housing, education, and unemployment.

Rounding, aggregation, synthetic estimation , and suppression of most census totals. The measures that estimate how well the census counted the population. Percentage of net coverage error and percentage of components of coverage, broken down by housing unit characteristics . Information that shows how well housing units were counted in the census. The type of information available by 2020 Census operations used to count the population. A country’s output of goods and sevices that people can buy with the money they have.

AP Human Geography Barrons Chapter 3

Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-inrceasing population. The description of the structure, distribution, and movement of population on the basis of statistical data is sometimes called descriptive demography. ] the science dealing with populations, including matters of health, disease, births, and mortality. The most important changes in human capital come in the very long run, however, through improved education.

demographic accounting equation

In 19th-century Europe, census taking improved and more reliable statistics became available for analysis. In the UK, the recording of death, then birth and marriage, rates was introduced after 1834 as the state came to recognize that population change was an actual phenomenon. The legal requirement to collect statistics made them more reliable, thus enabling demographers to apply more rigorous mathematical methods and facilitating their ability to forecast future population changes and developments. FORECASTING relies on assumptions made by the forecaster about populations; any forecast, therefore, is only as good as the assumptions that underlie it.

Capital to Labor Ratio

In developed countries with good registration systems , registry statistics are the best method for estimating the number of births and deaths. One of the things we need to know in order to calculate the demographic balancing equation is natural increase, or the population change from births and deaths. Calculating this is pretty easy – just subtract the number of deaths from number of births; that’s how much your population increased or decreased from natural causes. The demographic balancing equation calculates the changes in a population over time.

demographic accounting equation

Fiorite September 5, 2010 You can also look at the financial accounting equation in another way. The equation is also written as one’s assets are the equivalent of his or her net worth and liabilities. It just another way of saying everything within a person or organizations possession must fall within the owed or owned category, and if the equation does not equal, then there is a problem. Counting birth and death certificates is an easy way to determine natural increase.

Estimation of population coverage in the 1990 United States census based on demographic analysis

Assets refer to the worth of goods or products in the possession of the owner. Liabilities represent the amount of cash or resources that were http://cootransar.com.co/2019/07/ borrowed in order to acquire the assets. Net worth is the financial worth of the individual, less any outstanding debts to outside entities.

However, if the combination of liabilities and net worth does not equal the total of the assets, there is something wrong in the accounting process, and an investigation to uncover the origin of the imbalance should take place immediately. As anyone living in the United States should realize, people enter this country in more ways than just birth and leave in other ways besides death. After all, what kind of melting pot would we be without all the world’s peoples?

Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments. Look first at physical capital—the first row in Figure 20.11 “The Different Time Horizons in Economics”.

The ratio indicates the extent of capital intensiveness of an economy. Post-Enumeration Surveys The Post-Enumeration Survey measures the accuracy of the census by surveying people and matching responses to the census to determine coverage. An overview of demographic analysis as a method for evaluating census coverage in the United States. A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area’s current population. The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region.

Essentially, the point of the accounting equation is to arrive at this final component of net worth, or as it is sometimes referred to, the equity. As you gain knowledge about the demographic balancing equation, you’ll increase your ability to utilize the demographic balancing equation to determine the total population change of a given area from year to year. It is distinguished from other branches of history by its explicit use of concepts and tools derived from a discipline in social sciences . Its goal is to establish historical facts by applying such conceptual frameworks to historical sources, and its methodological novelty lies in quantification. The research results of historical demography as such have often questioned the conventional pictures of past populations, thereby raising doubts about the assumptions upon which many theories rest.

Growth accounting is a tool to decompose economic growth into components of input growth and technological progress. In the long run and very long run, technology advances through innovation and the hard work of research and development (R&D) that—hopefully—gives us new inventions.

The aggregate production function combines an economy’s physical capital stock, labor hours, human capital, and technology to produce output . The capital to labor ratio indicates that the standard of living in an economy https://www.lakandiwa.com/2011_10_29_archive.html depends on the availability of capital and advancements in technology, and not just on the percentage increase in employment. The capital to labor ratio is the ratio of total capital available per one unit of labor.

His work influenced Thomas Robert Malthus, who, writing at the end of the 18th century, feared that, if unchecked, population growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever-increasing famine and poverty . Malthus is seen as the intellectual father of ideas of overpopulation and the limits to growth. Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz and Verhulst. One of the earliest demographic studies in the modern period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt, which contains a primitive form of life table. Among the study’s findings were that one-third of the children in London died before their sixteenth birthday. Mathematicians, such as Edmond Halley, developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics.

In the short run, the amount of physical capital in the economy is more or less fixed. There are a certain number of machines, buildings, and so on, and we cannot make big changes in this capital stock. One thing that firms can do in the short run is to change capital utilization—shutting down a production line if they want to produce less output or running extra shifts if they want more output.

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